Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies
"Acad. Jordan Malinovski"

Specialized Equipment Located in Structural Units
1. Laboratory for Electron Beam Microscopy

• High Resolution Scanning Transmission electron microscope HR STEM JEOL JEM 2100 acceleration voltage 80 - 200 kV, maximum resolution – 0.23 nm between two points, maximum magnification 1500000x in conventional and 2000000x in scanning mode, with 5 basic regimes – bright field and dark field microscopy, diffraction from selected and nano sized area and diffraction in focused beam. Equipped with CCD camera GATAN Orius 832 SC1000 and GATAN Microscopy Suit Software.
• GATAN TEM samples preparation technique for thinning of bulk samples and thick films, including Ultrasonic Cutter model 601, Disk Grinder model 623, Dimple Grinder model 656 and Precise Ions Polishing System PIPS II model 695;
• Cross Section Kit model 601.07;
• Vacuum installation for sample preparation BH 30 for carbon sputtering and thermal evaporation of metals.
• Vacuum installation for carbon evaporation, noble metals sputtering and glow discharge Mini Sputter Coater SC7620.
• Scanning electron microscope SEM Philips 515 - digitalized, with secondary electrons image detectors (SEI), acceleration voltage 30 kV, magification 40 000x.
2. Laboratory for X-ray Analysis
• X-ray diffractometer "Philips 1710" – with monochromatic Cu-Kα emission and Bragg-Brentano focusing geometry
• Microprobes SEM Philips 505/EDAX 9100 and SEM Philips525/EDAX 9900 - accelerating voltage 1- 30 kV and 5-30 кV, maximum resolution 5 nm (at 30 kV, WD = 4.5 mm), lowest atomic number of a detectable element 11 (Na)
• Vacuum installation for sample preparationes - JЕОL 4C vacuum evaporator.
3. Laboratory for Auger Analysis
4. Laboratory for Photolithography
• AUGER Microprobe ASC 2000 - LAS 3000 Riber for surface and depth-profile elemental analysis, electron beam energy range - 0.1 -10 keV, spatial resolution - 5 nm, spectral sensitility 1/100 of monolayer, information depth – 2-10 monolayers, lowest possible atomic number of detected element - 3 (Li)
• Processing boxes, ensuring laminar air flow;
• Set-up for exposing and copying;
• Zones for development and etching;
• Spin coaters;
• Lines for flowing water, air, and nitrogen;
• Optical microscopes Amplival pol, NU2 (Karl Zeiss, Jena).
Equipment Allocated in Experimental Laboratories
5. Experimental Laboratory for Holographic Recording Media
• System for emulsification (IOMT made);
• Ventilated horizontal laminar box;
• Dryer cabinet (up to 250 °С);
• Electronic scales Metler Toledo-PB_L (accuracy ±0.0003g);
• Monochromator Specol TD-102;
• Microdensitometer TD-504 (Macbeth);
• Optical microscopes NU2, Ergaval (Karl Zeiss);
• Air conditioners.
6. Experimental Laboratory for Optical Characterization
• Spectrophotometer - UV-VIS-NIR Carry-5E (Varian) - transmittance and specular reflectance measurements at normal light incidence within the spectral range 190 - 3300 nm with corresponding accuracy of 0.1% and 0.5%, absolute reflectance measurements at various angles of incidence (00 - 700) with linear polarized light and accuracy better than 1%, remote transmittance measurements using fiber optics multiplexer accessory supplied from Varian.

• Spectroscopic Phase Modulated Ellipsometer UNIVESEL 2, Horiba JobinYvon
Spectral range 190-2100nm; Double Monochromator System for UV-Vis range, Computer controlled varirble angle goniometer with angle range 35° - 90° in steps of 0.01°, allowing variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE); Computer controlled 200mmx200 mm XYZ stage; Computer controlled mictrospots- choice og 8 different spot size to suit the feature size of sample; Temperature controlled cell+600 °C; Electrochemical cell,; Sealed cell for thin film characterization inder non-air ambient conditions; DeltaPsi software for controlling all hardware operation of the system, data acquisition, sample structure modeling, ellipsometric measurements analyses.
• Spectrofluorometer FluoroLog3-22, Horiba JobinYvon
Fully automated modular system with the highest sensitivity among those available on the market, allowing measurement of light emission of practically any type of samples, including very thin layers with a very low emission as well as quantum dots.
Double-grating monochromators in excitation and emission in the range 200-950nm; Bandpass: Ex. & Em. 0-15nm, continuously adjustable from computer; Wavelength accuracy +/- 0.5nm; Scan speed 150nm/s; Water Raman Signal min. 400.000cps, EX=350nm, EM=397nm, BP=5 nm, integration=1s; S/N Ratio =10 000/1 (FSD); TCSPC lifetime with NanoLed pulsed laser diode (375 nm), minimum measurable lifetime of 30 ps with PPD detector; Integrating Sphere Assembly for the quantum yield measurement of solid and liquid samples; Solid sample holder; Front-face viewing option with swing-away mirror; Liquid Nitrogen Dewar Assembly.
• 3D Optical profiler, Zeta-20, Zeta Instruments
The Zeta-20 optical profiler is a fully integrated microscope that provides 3D imaging and metrology capability. Zeta-20 enables imaging of surfaces with very low reflectivity and very high roughness. The Zeta system scans a sample over a user specified vertical (or Z) range. At each Z position, it records the XY location and the precise Z height of the pixels using the Zeta Optics Module. This information is used to create a true color 3D image and a 2D composite image. The resulting image has an extended depth of focus so the entire surface is clearly seen.
Vertical (Z) resolution < 1 nm; Field of view dimensions from 0.006 mm² to 15 mm2; Magnifications from 5x to 100x; Lateral Resolution: Sub-micron; Rapid data capture <1 minute typical; Integrated spectroscopic reflectometer that is capable of measuring multi-stack film thickness or n & k values if the thickness is known (wavelength range: 430-750 nm, thickness range: 30-50 000 nm)

• Thin film analyzer F20, Filmetrics – determination of thickness and optical constants of dielectric and semiconductors thin fims in 380-1050 nm spectral range on the basis of reflectance data; Thickness measurement range 10 nm - 70 μm; Аccuracy ±1 nm.
7. Experimental laboratory Atomic force microscopy
Atomic force microscope MFP-3D, Asylum Research, Oxford Instruments
Piezo driven flexure stage XY scanner with 90µm scan range and <0.5nm sensor noise (ADev,0.1Hz-1kHz), noise sensor non-lenearlity <0.05% (ADev/full travel) operates in both open-loop and closed-loop, with completely separated axes avoiding crosstalk; Sensored Z scanner with 15µm range for both open-loop and closed-loop operation with <0.25nm sensor noise and sensor non-linearity <0.05%.
Full complement of operating modes for fluid and air operation, including:
Contact/Lateral Force, non-contact AC mode, Intermitten-Contact (Q-control, phase, amplitude) mode, electric force microscopy (EFM), conductive c-AFM, photoconductive pc-AFM, surface potential microscopy (KPFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), Dual AC and Dual AC Resonance, Tracking (DART), loss tangent imaging, force spectroscopy and force volume, I-V spectroscopy with two separate current output channels providing gains of 1e6 (1µA/V) & 1e9 (1nA/V), (4pA to 10µA), nanolithography and nanomanipulation.
The device is supplied with Closed Fluid Cell, Cooler-Heater from -15°С to +120°С and Vacuum Chuck.
8. Experimental Laboratory for Electrical Measurements

• Impedance meter ( Advance Technology Ltd., Bulgaria) –0.1 Hz-20 MHz
• System for I-V measurements – Keithley 230, Keithley 617
• Solar simulator SF150B, Sciencetech Class ABA , with 150 W Xe arc lamp, beam turning assembly and AM 1.5G air mass filter.
9. OLED Experimental Laboratory

• Glovebox workstation MB-200, MBRAUN with fully integrated high vacuum chamber (< 2x10-6 mbar). The box is supplied with a gas purification system MB-20-G-W-V2A for closed cycle circulation of the inert gas with oxygen and moisture sensors as well as filtering and regeneration columns. The system provides automatic box pressure control in adjustable range between –15 to +15 mbar, keeps super low (< 1 ppm) concentrations of О2 and Н2О in the inert gas and has filtering capacity of 36 L О2 and 1300 g Н2О.
• High vacuum installation for thermal evaporation of different organic substances and metal cathode in one vacuum cycle,
• Measuring system “OLED Monitor 1000” of Advanced Technologies Ltd., on the basis of Hamamatsu photodiode and National Instruments Data Aqusition boards
10. Experimental Laboratory for Vacuum Deposition of Thin Layers

• Equipments for thermal, electron beam and laser assisted evaporation, DC and RF magnetron sputtering (part of it computer controlled) - Leybold-Heraus Q-700 и Leybold Heraus Z 700 P2; Varian 3119 with ECR source
• Plasma-enhanced CVD - type GENUS 8720
11. Experimental Laboratory with CW (continuous wave) lasers

Research activities:
Recording holographic optical elements, data storage, recording of monochrome and multicolor art holograms using CW lasers. Interferometric measurements of transmissive and reflective objects under mechanical tension and also on variation of their optical properties in static and dynamic mode.

• Holographic stands - 4 pcs .;
• DPSSL (diode pumped solid state laser) Verdi 12W, 532 nm (Coherent Inc .);
• He-Cd gas laser, 442 nm (Soliton – Kimmon);
• DPSS lasers Cobolt Calypso - 200 mW, 491 nm and Cobolt Zouk - 10mW, 355 nm;
• DPSS laser 594 nm, 50mW;
• Laser diode system OBIS LX, 150mW, 488 nm (Coherent Inc.);
• Laser diode system OBIS LS, 20mW, 514 nm (Coherent Inc.);
• Diode lasers in red and infrared range - 660 nm, 790 nm, 830 nm;
• Monochromatic CCD, color CCD and high-speed recording system and CMOS camera;
• Optical and mechanical components for holographic interferometry experiments;
• SLM (spatial light modulator) Holoeye 1080P;
• Polarimeter Thorlabs, model PAX57.
12. Experimental Laboratory for Optical Recording

Research activities:
Recording of optical elements, data storage, recording of monochrome and multicolor art holograms

• Diode pumped solid state laser: Verdi #2-532 nm;
• Coherent gas laser (wavelength 633 nm, output 10 mW);
• Low power lasers: diode-pumped at 473 nm, 15 mW and two gas laser at 633 nm, 2 mW;
• Vibroinsulated holographic stand;
• Multi CCD camera recording system and CMOS camera;
13. Experimental Laboratory with Pulse Lasers

Research activities:
Optical elements recording and data storage using pulse lasers.

• Argon gas laser at 476 nm, 488 nm and 514 nm;
• Two pulse Nd:YAG lasers, from B.M. Industries Series 5000 (λ = 1064 nm) with option for second, third and forth harmonic generation (532, 355 and 246 nm). Repetition rate: 20 Hz and 10 Hz, pulse duration: 10 ns;
• Optical parametric oscillator ОР 901 (B.M. Industries);
• Two power meters for energy measurements: LEM 2020 (Spectrolas), RJ-7620 (Laser precision corp.);
• Power meter Liconix 45PM;
14. Experimental Laboratory for Wet Deposition of Thin Layers

• Dynamic Light Scattering, (DLS), Zetasizer Nano ZS, Malvern - Size measurements from 0.3nm (diameter) to 10 microns; Molecular weight measurements from 106 Da down to 980 Da; Zeta potential measurements for values in the range: -500 mV to +500 mV; Equipped with accessory for Zeta potential measurements of solid surfaces and viscometer; Conduction of measurements in wide temperature range: 0-120°С
• Coaters WS-650 (Laurell Technologies) up to 12000 rpm;
• Ovens – up to 1200°С and 400°С;